Over time more layers were added, more nations joined and more policies powers were or "cake ingredients" were added. Each major layer was added with the signing of each of the Major New Treaties:-
- Treaty of Lisbon (2007)
EU Constitution Treaty (2005)
- Treaty of Nice (2001)
- Treaty of Amsterdam. (1997)
- Treaty on European Union - Maastricht Treaty. (1992)
- Single European Act. 1986
- Schengen Agreement (1985)
- Merger Treaty (1965) - Brussels Treaty
- Treaties of Rome (1957): EEC and EURATOM treaties
- Treaty of Paris (1951) - Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community.
The European Union is based on the rule of law. This means that every action taken by the EU is founded on treaties that have been approved voluntarily and democratically by all EU member countries. For example, if a policy area is not cited in a treaty, the Commission cannot propose a law in that area.
A treaty is a binding agreement between EU member countries. It sets out EU objectives, rules for EU institutions, how decisions are made and the relationship between the EU and its member countries.
Treaties are amended to make the EU more efficient and transparent, to prepare for new member countries and to introduce new areas of cooperation – such as the single currency.
Under the treaties, EU institutions can adopt legislation, which the member countries then implement.
This is a very succinct summary of how our "Cake" is sold to us. As you can see our cake was always designed to add ever more layers to it.
However in the combination of ingredients, the mixing, baking and designing of our cake, the question of the actual nature of the cake, what sort of cake are we actually trying to make, seems so simply to have been overlooked! What is a better cake? Is a bigger cake better? How much of each nation's ingredients actually contributes to making it better and do all of them agree on the sort of cake they would like to eat? Quoting the above introduction to The Great Deception by Christopher Booker and Richard North:-
"The purpose of this book is to tell for the first time the real story of how, through what had come to be known to its insiders as ‘the project’, the continent’s politicians had for half a century been seeking gradually to construct and to impose on their peoples a unique system of government. Not the least remarkable feature of this political experiment had been how few people really understood its real nature, aims and origins.
The form of government it created was unique because it was designed to place the nation states which belonged to it under a ‘supranational’ power, unaccountable to any electorate, ruling its citizens through the agency of each country’s own national authorities. Although the nation states and their institutions of government remained outwardly intact, all these institutions, from heads of state and parliaments to civil services and judicial systems, in reality became increasingly subject to the decisions and laws of the new power that was above them all."
However, bringing the past up to the present in 2015, our cake is much nearer to it's completion of being fully-baked and "ready to eat". And now people across Europe are beginning to see what sort of cake they are getting, the above "selling the idea of the cake" is no longer possible. We're moving from Pro-EU/"Let Them Eat Cake!" sales pitches to "How much of the cake is each nation getting or being charged for"!
This is how our "EU Reform Cake" is now being sold to us today:-
And to illustrate this is the modern arguments on the EU aka "Cameron's Reform Fudge" in the style and spin of "The Middle Way Fallacy" argument:-
We're now being sold "a slice of the EU Cake" as "EU Reform". But coming back to those layers and how the EU cake is made: The Treaty Of Rome (1957)
- DETERMINED to lay the foundations of an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe,
- RESOLVED to ensure the economic and social progress of their countries by common action to eliminate the barriers which divide Europe,
Arguing about how many chocolate buttons we get given on our slice or how thick it is, are completely missing this central point about our membership of the EU Supranational Organization. This cake analogy is a crude simplification, but for the complex and very fascinating full story then read The Great Deception from cover to cover.
Effectively when it comes to answering the EU Referendum question we're not talking about a slice from one cake, we're talking about two very different cakes:-
- Remain = Eating and paying for a small slice of the EU Cake
- Leave = Baking our own full and complete Cake